What is cancer?
Cancer refers to a disease in which body cells begin to divide uncontrollably and then these cells also destroy normal cells and spread throughout the body. The growth control system of our body is disturbed and thus the old aging cells are not destroyed at their appointed time and new cells are also formed unnecessarily.
Cancer cells have the following characteristics due to mutations in the relevant genes:
. Autonomic Growth Signals
. Insensitivity to growth inhibitory signals
. Elevation from cell death
. Uncontrolled growth
. Stimulation of new blood vessel formation
. The property of crossing different organ and surfaces and spreading throughout the body
How does cancer arise?
Cancer is a genetic problem that is either caused by an inherited mutation or by factors that disrupt our body’s growth-control system. It can occur at any time in life due to defects in our DNA and these defects are caused by long-term.
exposure to various environmental factors such as UV radiations, smoking, viruses, chemicals or radioactive materials. Under normal conditions, tumor suppressor genes are found in our DNA, which provide protection against cancer, but mutations in these genes cause cancer.
How does cancer spread?
Cancer spreads to different parts of the body through the process of metastasis. Cancer cells break away from their original site and gain access to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph.
A tumor that has spread to another site has the same name as the tumor at the primary site. Metastatic tumors are more lethal and have more serious consequences.
There are many types of cancer. Cancer is named after the tissue or organ it originates in, such as brain cancer originates in the brain and breast cancer originates in the breast.
Cancer cells can be divided into 5 types:
This cancer originates from epithelial cells that are found in various organs including the skin. Therefore, tumors arising from the tubules of the kidney and those arising from the epithelium of the skin actually arise from the same type of cells and are called carcinomas.
Carcinoma accounts for 90% of all cancers.
Types of carcinoma
This carcinoma has a gland-like pattern under the microscope.
Squamous cell carcinoma:
This cancer is made up of cells similar to squamous cells.
Basal cell carcinoma:
It originates in the basal layer of the skin and is mostly caused by ultraviolet rays.
It has both adeno and schema features.
The cells in them are very different from normal cells. They are also called high-grade tumors
It arises from connective tissue such as bone, cartilage or muscle. Cancer arising from fibrous tissue is called fibro sarcoma while cancer arising from bone is called osteosarcoma.
This cancer originates from the cells of the lymphatic system. This system includes the spleen, lymph nodes, thymus gland and bone marrow.
It has two main types:
Leukemia or blood cancer is primarily a cancer of the bone marrow. Bone marrow makes blood cells, including white blood cells, red cells, and platelets. There are 4 types of leukemia:
Cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow is called myeloma. Plasma cells protect us from infections by making antibodies.
Factors of concern:
. Growing old
. Linked to various carcinogens eg
. Working in the sun
. Viruses (human papillomavirus) and some bacteria
. Genetic elements
. Decreased physical activity
Precautions cancer treatment;
. Avoiding alcohol and smoking
. Protect from sunlight
. Use of sunscreen
. Cover your body to protect from sunlight
. Stay in the shade
. Stay indoors especially from 10 am to 4 pm when the sunlight is very strong.
A healthy and balanced diet of cancer treatment;
. Consume vegetables and fruits
. Avoid eating processed meat
- Keep your weight under control and exercise for 15 minutes daily
- get vaccinated against the virus
- Get your regular check-up done for timely diagnosis.
Avail our online facilities now to get various tests and radiological investigations done.
Surgery is done to remove the tumor from the body
- Radiation therapy
Cancer cells can also be reduced in size through radiation therapy
Cancer is treated with drugs
- Stem cell transplant
In this process, the patient’s damaged stem cells are replaced with new cells
It is a type of biological therapy that boosts the body’s immune system
- Targeted drug therapy
In this treatment, drugs are delivered directly into the tumor.